At the height of the Cold War, 54 underground silos containing the most powerful nuclear missiles ever built (before or since) littered the landscape in Arizona, Kansas, and Arkansas. The warheads sitting atop these inter continental ballistic missiles were approximately 600 times more powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima at the end of World War II. To put that in context, that bomb destroyed an area approximately four square miles. Each Titan II missile was designed to obliterate an area 900 square miles.

Unlike modern day weapons, these missiles were not designed for tactical strikes. The idea was that if one was launched, they were all going to be launched. The system was intended entirely as a deterrent to the Soviet Union, the message being, “if you attack us, we will annihilate you.” On the other side, the Soviet Union built their own deterrent system, with the exact same message. This concept of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) was as controversial as it was, ultimately, effective.

The 54 Titan II missiles were located in just three states – each in an area dominated by a strategic Air Force base. There were 17 sites surrounding Little Rock AFB in Arkansas (originally 18 until the Damascus accident), 18 sites around McConnell AFB in Wichita, Kansas, and 18 sites near Davis-Monthan in Tucson. In 1983, as part of a weapons modernization program, all of the silos, save one, were officially decommissioned and destroyed. The one remaining facility was preserved as a museum, a monument to how close humanity came to wiping itself out and a lesson in how well the program ultimately achieved its objective of ‘peace through deterrence.’

Map showing location of Tucson area's Titan II missile silos
In the center of the map lies the city of Tucson. Each yellow circle demarcates one of the missile complexes. The one closest to the city, due south of it, is the museum.

While in Tucson, we toured the Titan Missile Museum twice. We were so intrigued by the standard one hour tour that most visitors take, that we signed up to return several weeks later for their comprehensive “Top to Bottom Tour.”

While both tours touched on the larger political/historical context of the facility, the main focus was on the site itself – how the facilities were designed to meet the objectives of the program, how the missile itself worked, the manner in which it would have been launched, the ways in which the facility was secured, and the day to day lives of the crews who worked there.

Diagram of Titan II missile complex
The missile complex: On the left, the command and control center – where the crew worked, ate, and slept on each of their 24 hour shifts. On the right, the missile silo. In the center, a highly secured access portal to the surface.

Some of the most interesting facets of the tour involved the challenges the military faced when building these sites and how they overcame those challenges. For example, in order to be an effective deterrent, the other side had to be absolutely convinced that if they launched an attack, the United States would be able to respond effectively. Meaning, this complex had to meet its objectives even if nuclear weapons were raining down on the United States. In real terms, that meant if a powerful electromagnetic pulse knocked out electricity for hundreds of miles around, the missile could still be launched; if the earth was shaking from bombs falling nearby, the missile could still be launched; and if nuclear radiation was actively poisoning the air, water, and soil above ground, the missile could still be launched. If the military couldn’t reliably launch these missiles quickly and effectively during an attack, their deterrent effect would evaporate.

How to address these issues? Start by building a command and control center that was surrounded by 8 foot thick, steel reinforced concrete walls, complete with 3 ton blast doors.

Entrance doorway to Command and Control module of Titan II Missile complex in Tucson, Arizona
The entire room he is standing in is the doorway. Check out how thick the walls are.

Next, separate the entire command and control facility, as well as the missile silo, from the earth by bolting the structures to springs – creating giant shock absorbers…

Giant spring bolted to the floor of the command and control center at the Titan Missile Museum.
Giant springs bolted to the floor

Tour guide standing in front of giant spring in command and control at Titan II missile complex.

Then, put every mission critical piece of equipment in the complex on its own set of springs

Equipment attached to springs at the Titan Missile Museum

or place them on top of floating platforms….

Equipment on a floating platform at the Titan Missile Museum in Tucson

Finally, place the Command and Control Center far from the missile silo, providing the crew protection from the launch of the facility’s own missile…

Hallway between the command center and the missile silo at the Titan II Missile complex near Tucson

Speaking of challenges related to the launch, Titan II was the first ICBM designed to be launched from inside the silo itself, rather than having to be raised to the surface before launch. Without proper sound suppression, the violent shaking of the massive engines firing inside the silo would destroy the missile before it ever cleared the surface. The engineers addressed these issues by lining the silo with specialized sound absorbing panels and by designing a massive water suppression system that would fill the cavity below the rocket with millions of gallons of water as the engine was firing.

The water based noise suppression system for the Titan II missile
Giant spigots that would force water, which was contained in a huge onsite tank, into the room beneath the rocket

At the Museum, the missile’s engines have been removed and places outside so visitors can see them up close.

The 3 engines for the Titan II Missile displayed outside at the Titan Missile Museum
The big, powerful Stage 1 engine got the missile out of the silo and up into the atmosphere, the smaller stage II engine, in the back on the left, then took over and directed the missile about 50 miles downrange, the final stage consisted of two Vernier motors that made minor trajectory adjustments as the missile reentered the atmosphere and headed toward its target.

Speaking of engines, the Titan missiles that would have delivered their thermonuclear warheads halfway around the world in 35 minutes were the same systems that powered 12 different Gemini missions for NASA between 1964 and 1966. Instead of a nuclear warhead on top, NASA placed astronauts and equipment and set off for space. Here’s an interesting article I found talking about various astronauts’ experiences on these flights.

One of the crucial features that distinguished Titan II from previous ICBMs was its readiness to launch. Prior ICBMs were liquid propellant systems that used liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Liquid oxygen has to be stored at extremely low temperatures, which means that it can’t be stored onboard the missile. As a result, prior ICBMs had to be fueled just before launch, a process that could take some thirty minutes.

As Soviet rocket technology improved, a thirty minute launch period was simply too long. The oxidizer for the Titan II missile was nitrogen tetroxide, which does not need to be stored at extremely low temperatures. As a result, the Titan II missile could be fueled and ready at all times. The launch window was reduced from thirty minutes to just 58 seconds.

The downside of the Titan II’s new propellant system, however, was that the chemicals used were extremely toxic and dangerous. Workers donned protective gear to work on the missile, but even with extreme caution, there were still deadly accidents involving these chemicals.

Protective suits workers at the Titan Missile complex wore when servicing the missile

Once the command to launch was given – an order that could only come from the President – a careful, choreographed process would begin in the command module.

After an alarm bell rang inside the center, a series of codes would come over the loudspeaker. The Commanding Officer and the First Officer would each write the codes down. They would then trade their work to ensure they’d both heard the same thing. Assuming so, both officers would walk over to a locked cabinet, unlock their individual locks, and retrieve a pack of authentication cards.

Tour guide pointing to locked cabinet which contained authentication cards at Titan Missile complex
The cabinet with two locks. Each officer only knew the combination to his or her own lock.

They would compare the codes on the authentication cards against what had just come over the loudspeaker. Assuming they matched, the officers would know they’d been given the go-ahead to launch. Finally, they would enter an additional code – also received directly from the President in the radio message – into a control (referred to as a butterfly valve lock control) to unlock a valve located on one of the rocket’s oxidizer lines. The rocket could not launch without that valve unlocked. This last code was a fail-safe to ensure infiltrators, or rogue employees, could not launch the missile on their own.

Tour guide pointing to butterfly valve lock in command and control room at Titan Missile Museum
One of our docents talking about the butterfly valve lock control, which is located right above his left hand. To the right in the photo is the Commanding Officer’s desk. To the left, is the First Officer’s desk.

The President’s orders would include instructions regarding the timing of each launch… If all 54 missiles were launched at the same time, several would crash into one another over the north pole. By staggering the launches, all of the missiles would presumably reach their intended targets in one piece. This meant that after receiving and verifying their orders to launch, the crew would have to wait a certain amount of time before actually launching their missile.

When it was time to launch, both officers would place their keys in their individual control panels and turn, at the same time, for five seconds. The panels were not within reach of one another, ensuring that one person could not launch the missile alone.

During the first tour, the docent volunteered me to play the role of Commanding Officer.

Listening to instructions on how to end the world….
Ending the world…

You can see where the docent is over at the First Officer’s desk. We’re both turning our keys at the same time to send the missile off.

Once the keys were turned, each of these lights would illuminate from left to right, showing the progress of the launch.

Launch control panel at Titan Missile Museum

Once the launch began, there was no way to terminate it.

The last light, which reads “Lift Off” would illuminate just 58 seconds after the keys were turned.

Tours at the Titan Missile Museum

Both of the tours we took were excellent. The regular one hour tour explains the background of the program, takes visitors to the command and control center, demonstrates the launch, and takes them to view the missile in its silo from a viewing area about two thirds of the way up. The docents also show visitors the surface level including the various communications and security equipment, the fueling trucks, the engines, and the view from the top of the rocket down.

The above ground view of the Titan Missile complex near Tucson, Arizona
The view above ground. The large beige structure is the giant cement cover that protected the silo until launch, when it would slide back on rails. To the far right, a fueling truck. Also visible, several communications towers.

Described as a 4-6 hour experience, the extended “Top to Bottom Tour” is limited to just six visitors, offers extensive access to all areas of the complex, and provides comprehensive detail about all aspects of the program. The tour completely delivered on its promises. We were there for well over five hours and when they say “top to bottom,” they mean “top to bottom.” The docents, one of whom had been a crew member at the facility for many years before it was decommissioned, were some of the most engaging, well versed, and interesting we’ve had, and the small group format really allowed us to get up close to the equipment, ask questions, and gain real insight into the program.

Additionally, the tour was just cool. We climbed ladders, ducked into small viewing areas, and rode old style freight elevators. And while the hard hats (and sexy protective hair nets) they made us wear seemed like overkill at first, by the third time we’d knocked our heads into low hanging pipes and doors, we were happy to have them.

We stood at the very top of the rocket looking down…

The Titan II Missile at the Titan Missile Museum in Sahuarita, Arizona
The square hole you see cut in the nose cone was put there so representatives from the Soviet Union could inspect the museum missile and verify it had not been re-weaponized.

we poked our head into multiple access points along the missile…

Our guide showing us an area of the missile about halfway down the side.

and we studied the underside of the rocket where the engine would have been attached:

Base of the Titan II missile
The Stage One engine, which was sitting above ground at the museum, would have been attached here. The room below this level, that you can see through the open grates, would have been flooded with water during launch.

Finally, we stood at the very bottom and looked up.

This picture is woefully inadequate to demonstrate the experience of standing underneath the Titan II.

Beyond the missile itself, we were able to see the inner workings of all the major support systems for the missile and crew. Everything from a massive diesel generator that stood ready to power the facility, to huge hydraulic systems that controlled the enormous cement silo cover, to the basement full of 1960’s tech was available for our perusal. We even got to see where some irritated employee drew graffiti on the wall making fun of his boss…

Tour guide pointing out graffiti on the walls of the silo Drawings on the wall

However, there was truly little to laugh at at this facility. When it was operational, the fate of millions rested on a handful of people tasked to follow an endless array of safety and security protocols to manage and maintain these missile complexes. And the fate of humanity itself rested on the leadership of a foreign adversary being convinced that these dedicated crews would be ready to unleash the unthinkable if called upon to do so by their government.

"No Lone Zone" sign on wall at Titan Missile complex
These signs, located throughout the complex, meant crew were not to be alone in the area.

Fortunately, the system worked as designed and rational actors were in control in both the USSR and the U.S. during these momentous years. Seeing this complex up close, and learning how complicated-yet-simple the process of ending life on earth could (and still can) be, was remarkable. If you find yourself in the Tucson area, the Titan Missile Museum is well worth your time.


Feel like sharing this article on Pinterest? Sweet!! Pin this…

Think this article is garbage and should never be shared anywhere? Well, that’s just mean. Please atone for your poor attitude by pinning this article to all of your boards.


  1. We loved this museum too! We only went to the regular tour because we were terrible procrastinators and didn’t call about the other tour until it was too late. Cool tidbit, I was stationed at Vandenberg AFB where they test our operational ICBMs and got to see several of the test launches.

    • One of our bucket-list items is to see a rocket launch. I am definitely jealous. I can only imagine how cool it must have been to see them launch… especially while you’re just going about your daily life. Too cool!

    • We learned a lot on the first tour, but definitely had a bunch of questions which were answered on the more in-depth tour – first, because they just had more time to give us information; and second, because the small group allowed us to ask more questions. I’m really glad we did both. You do have to book it way in advance though.

    • I can’t think of a more appropriate term for the whole thing. It was just insane. Fortunately, the people making the decisions were not. If it were otherwise, we wouldn’t be here today to talk about it. And yes, add it to your list. I think you guys would really enjoy it.

  2. Wow! That looks really cool and like something we would both enjoy. So frightening to think of what could have happened and so grateful that now it is just a tourist/educational facility. We will put this on our list if end up retiring to AZ someday!!

    • You guys would love it, and you would really love the extended tour. It was akin to your tour of the aircraft carrier… You get to see everything and really get a sense of what life is/was like for the crew.

  3. We just took the regular tour but what an interesting experience it was. For some reason they chose me to help launch the missile.

  4. Now you can add the National Minutemen museum to your list to see the next evolution of the system and know it is still in use today in Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota with 399 solid rocket fulled missles. Interesting technology still with a role to play but much reduced from the height of the Cold War is sheer numbers of nuclear weapons both sides had. I spent three years floating around the ocean with 16 nuclear missles onboard, hiding out from the other side…

    • Yes! Those facilities are already on our radar for when we cross through the center of the country. There are several museums and sites along the way that I want to visit. It will be interesting to see the next generation and compare and contrast all of these things. During our tour at Titan, we talked a bit about the change to the solid fuels that are a lot less disaster prone. We’re looking forward to seeing it all.

  5. Very interesting…..and very frightening. You did a fabulous job of digesting and retelling all the information. (I was going to say regurgitate, but thought it sounded unpleasant.) We’ve been past this museum many times and never stopped. Next time we definitely will. Safe travels.

    • Haha… Yeah, “regurgitate” never sounds all that appealing. But you should absolutely go check it out. It’s a one of a kind place that is well worth a visit!

  6. We appreciated your tip to check this out. The close-up interaction with a significant piece of Cold War history is exactly the sort of thing we were hoping to experience when we hit the road. It’s hard to believe the Cold War seems like a distant memory now, but it was very real and active within our lifetimes!

    • I was thinking about that during our visit. I have distinct memories of the big “summits” between Gorbachev and Reagan in the mid 80’s. I was very young, but I definitely remember it being huge news at the time. Understanding just how close their predecessors had come to using these types of weapons certainly puts so much in context.

  7. Reading about your experience gives me chills. The whole premise of Mutually Assured Destruction is such an insane way to ensure peace. But as you said, it worked, and fortunately, we had rational people at the helm in both the U.S. and the USSR during that time. I wish that all of the money, intelligenc, and energy expended for military, defense, and border walls could be directed toward real solutions for peace. Too bad that’s not gonna happen, but maybe we don’t have to put quite so much energy into figuring out how to annhilate ourselves.
    Thanks for such an in-depth and thougtful post. You make a good commanding officer—where’s the photo of Kevin in his hairnet and hardhat? 🙂

      • Haha… I didn’t even notice the typos until you pointed them out. It’s easy to read right over them. That’s why I always have Kevin proofread my posts before I publish them. Your brain does amazing things to fill in gaps!

        Anyway, yes, I agree wholeheartedly. If we spent half as much money developing new ways to save people as we do to finding new ways to kill people, the world would be a much better place. Unfortunately, that’s never going to happen. In the meantime, we just have to hope there are grownups in the room who keep things under control. It’s getting harder and harder to rely on that, but I guess we’ll just have to keep our fingers crossed.

  8. Oh Boy, you did it in two tours just so you can share it with us in depth! Steve was pretty impressed you did the longer one, while we lesser mortal just did the regular one hour which we thought was frightening to hear at the same time interesting. Reading your post actually made me think of what the current suspension of one of the last major nuclear arms control treaties with Russia means relating to the building of similar and powerful missiles with current technology.
    But what’s trippy for us, was that we accidentally met retired USAF Lt. Colonel Kermit C. Thompson, commander of the missile silo (in that facility) at a laundromat in South Carolina just five months after our Titan tour! Steve and I sat with him and had a long conversation about his time in Tucson.

    • Thank you, Pam! We really enjoyed the tour and I was excited to write about it. It’s rare to get such complete access to something so unique, so historically significant, and so well preserved. I hope others will go check it out for themselves. It is truly a special place.

  9. I am glad you did both tours and are such a good writer because it saves me from dying of claustrophobia. Did it feel like that in there?

    I also have the question for MonaLiza of how in the world they got to talking about the missiles in a laundromat!

    You turned your key!! Do you think you could actually do that or similar things? Places like that really make us think. Good conversation topics for future happy hours!

    • So, I didn’t find it particularly claustrophobic, but that stuff generally doesn’t bother me much, so I might not be the best judge. It’s definitely a lot of windowless spaces, so if you’re not a fan of that, you might give it some consideration before doing the tour. But really, the regular one hour tour moves you along pretty quickly, so unless those things really bother you, I wouldn’t think it would be an issue.

      As for whether I could turn the key in real life, wow, I have no idea. I don’t know that anyone can really know what they would do. It’s crazy to even think about, honestly. Indeed, a good topic for some future HH conversation.

  10. What a fascinating tour, and since I’m planning to be in the Southwest next winter, I’m putting it on my list of things to check out. Thanks for the great article and the amazing photos with all the details. That one looking down at the missile is beautiful in a M.A.D. way.

    • The Museum is a fascinating, terrifying, and thoroughly intriguing place. From what I’ve seen of the places you like to visit, I think you would really enjoy it. And I absolutely know what you mean: it is amazing how something so horrifying can also be downright mesmerizing. Thanks for stopping by and thanks for your comment!

  11. My father was one of the men to turn the key on the titan 2 missile at mcconnell air base in Kansas I am definitely going to this museum and hopefully I can get a picture like the one of my dad just me in his position miss ya dad rip


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here